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Defining a document

The Document class in Beanie is responsible for mapping and handling the data from the collection. It is inherited from the BaseModel Pydantic class, so it follows the same data typing and parsing behavior.

from typing import Optional

import pymongo
from pydantic import BaseModel

from beanie import Document, Indexed


class Category(BaseModel):
    name: str
    description: str


class Product(Document):  # This is the model
    name: str
    description: Optional[str] = None
    price: Indexed(float, pymongo.DESCENDING)
    category: Category

    class Settings:
        name = "products"
        indexes = [
            [
                ("name", pymongo.TEXT),
                ("description", pymongo.TEXT),
            ],
        ]

Fields

As it was mentioned before, the Document class is inherited from the Pydantic BaseModel class. It uses all the same patterns of BaseModel. But also it has special types of fields:

  • id
  • Indexed

id

id field of the Document class reflects the unique _id field of the MongoDB document. Each object of the Document type has this field. The default type of this is PydanticObjectId.

class Sample(Document):
    num: int
    description: str

foo = await Sample.find_one(Sample.num > 5)

print(foo.id)  # This will print id

bar = await Sample.get(foo.id)  # get by id

If you prefer another type, you can set it up too. For example, UUID:

from uuid import UUID, uuid4

from pydantic import Field


class Sample(Document):
    id: UUID = Field(default_factory=uuid4)
    num: int
    description: str

Indexed

To set up an index over a single field, the Indexed function can be used to wrap the type:

from beanie import Indexed


class Sample(Document):
    num: Indexed(int)
    description: str

The Indexed function takes an optional argument index_type, which may be set to a pymongo index type:

class Sample(Document):
    description: Indexed(str, index_type=pymongo.TEXT)

The Indexed function also supports pymongo IndexModel kwargs arguments (PyMongo Documentation).

For example, to create a unique index:

class Sample(Document):
    name: Indexed(str, unique=True)

Settings

The inner class Settings is used to configure:

  • MongoDB collection name
  • Indexes
  • Encoders
  • Use of revision_id
  • Use of cache
  • Use of state management
  • Validation on save

Collection name

To set MongoDB collection name, you can use the name field of the Settings inner class.

class Sample(Document):
    num: int
    description: str

    class Settings:
        name = "samples"

Indexes

The indexes field of the inner Settings class is responsible for the indexes' setup. It is a list where items can be:

  • Single key. Name of the document's field (this is equivalent to using the Indexed function described above)
  • List of (key, direction) pairs. Key - string, name of the document's field. Direction - pymongo direction ( example: pymongo.ASCENDING)
  • pymongo.IndexModel instance - the most flexible option. PyMongo Documentation
class DocumentTestModelWithIndex(Document):
    test_int: int
    test_list: List[SubDocument]
    test_str: str

    class Settings:
        indexes = [
            "test_int",
            [
                ("test_int", pymongo.ASCENDING),
                ("test_str", pymongo.DESCENDING),
            ],
            IndexModel(
                [("test_str", pymongo.DESCENDING)],
                name="test_string_index_DESCENDING",
            ),
        ]

Encoders

The bson_encoders field of the inner Settings class defines how the Python types are going to be represented when saved in the database. The default conversions can be overridden with this.

The ip field in the following example is converted to String by default:

from ipaddress import IPv4Address


class Sample(Document):
    ip: IPv4Address

Note: Default conversions are defined in beanie.odm.utils.bson.ENCODERS_BY_TYPE.

However, if you want the ip field to be represented as Integer in the database, you need to override the default encoders like this:

from ipaddress import IPv4Address


class Sample(Document):
    ip: IPv4Address

    class Settings:
        bson_encoders = {
          IPv4Address: int
        }

You can also define your own function for the encoding:

from ipaddress import IPv4Address


def ipv4address_to_int(v: IPv4Address):
    return int(v)

class Sample(Document):
    ip: IPv4Address

    class Settings:
        bson_encoders = {
          IPv4Address: ipv4address_to_int
        }